Physical Vapor Deposition(Sputtering)
Difficulties combined with the elevated temperature in case of CVD can be eliminated by PVD (sputtering). The substrate in this process remains fairly cold.
An ion beam (preferably noble gas) is generated in a high vacuum chamber by energy, it frees tungsten particles which are deposited on the substrate.
Improved design of sputtering equipment somewhat allows the substitution of CVD tungsten. Sputter targets used for thin layers in microelectronics manufacture are made of high or ultrahigh purity W, W-10% Ti, and WSix.
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